Three-Dimensional Video Watermarking – A Review and Open Challenges

  • Omar N. Al-Boeridi RMIT University
  • Hong Ren Wu RMIT University
  • Ron van Schyndel RMIT University
Keywords: 3-D video, Stereoscopic video, Watermarking, Copyright protection, Data hiding

Abstract

Intellectual property (IP) protection of three-dimensional (3-D) media is an important issue for both academic and wider communities to combat the illegal distribution and pirating of this visual medium. Digital watermarking has been used to address various challenges in media IP protection. The challenge central to 3-D video as well as other audio-visual signal watermarking is that given a fixed level of perceptual transparency, a watermarking system cannot simultaneously achieve a high degree of robustness and a high watermark payload. The majority of published research reports in this field try to introduce new embedding methodologies to increase the watermark robustness with highest possible visual media quality. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in 3-D video watermarking and assesses various watermarking techniques in the field. Some of 3-D video watermarking techniques are directly inherited from video watermarking, stereo image watermarking or 3-D mesh watermarking, and therefore the relevant techniques in these fields are reviewed in this paper as well. Key performances of various embedding algorithms are examined and compared in this review to identify a benchmark for future development and performance evaluation of new 3-D video watermarking techniques.

References

Asikuzzaman, M., Alam, M. J., Lambert, A. J., Pickering, M. R., (2014). Imperceptible and robust blind video watermarking using chrominance embedding: a set of approaches in the DT CWT domain. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, 9(9), 1502-1517.

Bai, C., Yu, M., Jiang, G., Peng, Z., Shao, F., (2012). New HVS-Based Stereoscopic Image Watermarking Algorithm for 3D Media. Í Advances on Digital Television and Wireless Multimedia Communications (bls. 500-507): Springer.

Bensaied, R., Mitrea, M., Chammem, A., Ebrahimi, T., (2014). Subjective quality assessment for stereoscopic video: case study on robust watermarking. Proc IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging.

Bi, H., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Wang, D., (2014). Video Watermarking Based on 3D Scale Invariant Spatio-Temporal Feature Points. Sensors & Transducers (1726-5479), 163(1).

Bouzidi, I., Ouled, A. Z., Hachani, M., Puech, W., (2013a). Joint watermarking and progressive geometric compression of 3D meshes. Proc ACM workshop on Information hiding and multimedia security.

Bouzidi, I., Ouled Zaid, A., Hachani, M., Puech, W., (2013b). Joint watermarking and progressive geometric compression of 3D meshes. Proc Proceedings of the first ACM workshop on Information hiding and multimedia security.

Bovik, A. C., (2013). Automatic prediction of perceptual image and video quality. Proc Proceedings IEEE.

Cayre, F., Rondao-Alface, P., Schmitt, F., Macq, B. t., Maıtre, H., (2003). Application of spectral decomposition to compression and watermarking of 3D triangle mesh geometry. Signal Processing: Image Communication, 18(4), 309-319.

Chammem, A., Mitrea, M., Prêteux, F., (2013). Stereoscopic video watermarking: a comparative study. annals of telecommunications-annales des télécommunications, 68(11-12), 673-690.

Chen, Y.-H., Huang, H.-C., (2013). A robust watermarking scheme for stereoscopic video frames. Proc IEEE 17th International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE).

Deguillaume, F., Csurka, G.O'Ruanaidh, J. J., Pun, T., (1999). Robust 3D DFT video watermarking. Electronic Imaging'99.

Franco-Contreras, J., Baudry, S., Doerr, G., (2011). Virtual view invariant domain for 3D video blind watermarking. Proc 18th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP).

Gao, X., Zhang, C., Huang, Y., Deng, Z., (2012). A robust high-capacity affine-transformation-invariant scheme for watermarking 3D geometric models. ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP), 8(2S), 34.

Garcia, E., Dugelay, J.-L., (2003). Texture-based watermarking of 3D video objects. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 13(8), 853-866.

Garg, H., Khandelwal, K. K., Gupta, M., Agrawal, S., (2014, 7-9 April 2014). Uniform Selection of Vertices for Watermark Embedding in 3-D Polygon Mesh Using IEEE754 Floating Point Representation. Proc Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), 2014 Fourth International Conference

Hartung, F. H., Girod, B., (1996). Digital watermarking of raw and compressed video. Proc Advanced Imaging and Network Technologies.

Hartung, F. H., Girod, B., (1997). Fast public-key watermarking of compressed video. Proc Image Processing, 1997. Proceedings., International Conference on.

ITU-R., (2012). Methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures: Recommendation BT.500-13, International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector.

ITU-R., (2015). Subjective methods for the assessment of stereoscopic 3DTV systems. BT.2021-1, International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector.

Joshi, A., M.Mishra, V., Patrikar, R., (2015). Design of real-time video watermarking based on Integer DCT for H. 264 encoder. International Journal of Electronics, 102(1), 141-155.

Kim, S.-J., Lee, S.-H., Moon, K.-S., Cho, W.-H., Lim, I.-T., Kwon, S.-G.,
Lee, K.-I., (2004). A new digital video watermarking using the dual watermark images and 3D DWT. Proc IEEE Conference TENCON

Koller, D., Levoy, M., (2005). Protecting 3d graphics content. Communications of the ACM, 48(6), 74-80.

Koz, A., Cigla, C., Alatan, A. A., (2010). Watermarking of free-view video. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 19(7), 1785-1797.

Lee, J., Won, L., Kyu, L., (2011). Perceptual Watermarking for 3D Stereoscopic Video Using Depth Information. Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. doi:10.1109/iihmsp.2011.83

Lee, J., W., Lee, H.-Y., Joo, S.-H., (2014). Anonymous Editing Prevention Method for Depth-Image-Based Rendering Stereoscopic Video. Í Frontier and Innovation in Future Computing and Communications (bls. 401-407): Springer.

Lin, Y.-H., (2012). 3D multimedia signal processing. Proc Proceedings of the 20th ACM international conference on Multimedia.

Malekmohamadi, H., Fernando, A. Kondoz, A., (2014). A new reduced reference metric for color plus depth 3D video. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, 25(3), 534-541. doi:10.1016/j.jvcir.2013.12.009

Masoumi, M., Amiri, S., (2012). A High Capacity Digital Watermarking Scheme for Copyright protection of Video Data based on YCbCr Color Channels Invariant to Geometric and Non-Geometric Attacks. International Journal of Computer Applications, 51(13), 0975-8887.

Mat Kiah, M., Zaidan, B., Zaidan, A., Mohammed Ahmed, A., Al-bakri, S. H., (2011). A review of audio based steganography and digital watermarking. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 6(16), 3837-3850.

Ntalianis, K. S., Tzouveli, P. D., Drigas, A. S., (2012). Automatic stereoscopic video object-based watermarking using qualified significant wavelet trees. Journal of Computer Science & Technology

Paul, R. T., (2011). Review of robust video watermarking techniques. IJCA Special Issue on Computational Science, 3, 90-95.

Rajab, L., Al-Khatib, T., Al Haj, A., (2015). A Blind DWT-SCHUR Based Digital Video Watermarking Technique. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 8(04), 224.

Wandell, B. A., (1995). Foundations of vision. Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer Associates.

Wang, K., Lavoué, G., Denis, F., Baskurt, A., (2007a). Three-dimensional meshes watermarking: Review and attack-centric investigation. 9th International Workshop in Information Hiding Saint Malo, France.

Wang, K., Lavoué, G., Denis, F., Baskurt, A., (2007b). Three-dimensional meshes watermarking: Review and attack-centric investigation. Proc 9th International Workshop in Information Hiding, France.

Wang, K., Lavoué, G., Denis, F., Baskurt, A., (2008). A comprehensive survey on three-dimensional mesh watermarking. Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on, 10(8), 1513-1527.

Wu, C., Yuan, K., Cheng, M., Ding, H., (2012). Differential watermarking scheme of stereo video. Proc IEEE 14th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT).

Wu, H. R., Rao, K., (2006). Digital video image quality and perceptual coding: Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press.

Wu, H. R., Reibman, A. R., Lin, W., Pereira, F., Hemami, S. S., (2013). Perceptual visual signal compression and transmission. Proceedings of the IEEE, 101(9), 2025-2043.

Xie, L., Arce, G. R., (1998). A blind wavelet based digital signature for image authentication. Proc Proceedings European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 98).

Yu, M., Wu, A., Luo, T., Jiang, G., Zhou, W., Fu, S., (2012). A new stereo image watermarking method for 3D media. Procedia Engineering, 29, 2399-2404.

Zhou, W., Jiang, G., Yu, M., Shao, F., Peng, Z., (2014). Reduced-reference stereoscopic image quality assessment based on view and disparity zero-watermarks. Signal Processing: Image Communication, 29(1), 167-176
Published
2016-04-18
Section
Review