Robust Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Main Article Content

Anthony Krzesinski


mobile ad hoc networks, incentives for cooperation, credit-based incentives, resistance to fraud.


Consider a mobile ad hoc network where the nodes belong to different authorities. The nodes must be given incentives to spend their resources (battery power and transmission bandwidth) in forwarding packets that originate at nodes belonging to another authority.  This can be done by assigning a credit balance to each node: when a node acts as an originating node it uses its credits to pay for the costs of sending its own traffic; when a node acts as a transit node it earns credits by forwarding traffic from other nodes.

This paper presents a credit-based incentive scheme which assists nodes when they lack the credits necessary to transmit their data. An essential part of the credit-based scheme is a decentralised credit redistribution mechanism to destroy (create) credit at nodes that are over (under) supplied with credit.

The goal of this paper is to investigate the effect of various fraudulent activities on the performance of the credit-based incentive scheme. We show that the credit-based scheme is inherently robust with respect to a number of fraudulent activities, provided the nodes behave in a rational manner. We show that credit redistribution is the main reason why the credit-based incentive scheme is relatively immune to fraud.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 366 | PDF Downloads 8


L. Buttyan and J.-P. Hubaux. (2003). Stimulating Cooperation in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Mobile Networks and Applications, 8(5):579–592, 2003.

L. Buttyan and J.-P. Hubaux. (2008). Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

T. Camp, J. Boleng and V. Davies. (2002). A survey of mobility models for ad hoc network research. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 2:483–502, 2002.

J. Crowcroft, R. Gibbens, F. Kelly, and S. Ostring. (2004). Modelling Incentives for Collaboration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Performance Evaluation, 57(4):427–439, 2004.

J. Goebel, M. Mandjes and A.E. Krzesinski. (2009). Incentive-based control of ad hoc networks: a performance study. Computer Networks, 53(14), pp 2427–2443, Sep 2009.

Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications. (2012). IEEE Std 802.11-2012 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.11-2007 ) IEEE, 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA 29 March 2012.

Network Simulator NS2. (2015). Accessed at on 1 March 2015